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Border Control

Information on specific issues of exit from and entry into the Russian Federation of citizens of the Russian Federation, foreign citizens and stateless persons

The rules for crossing the state border of the Russian Federation are available on the website of the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of Russia.

Valid documents for the right to enter or exit the Russian Federation are the basis for state border crossing.

Passage across the state border involves recognition of the legality of crossing the state border by persons arriving in the territory of the Russian Federation, or permission to cross the state border by persons leaving the Russian Federation.

The transport company (passenger carrier) is responsible for checking visas or other permits for the entry of persons into a foreign country.

The following are not subject to passage across the state border of the Russian Federation:

  • foreign citizens and stateless persons who are not allowed to enter the Russian Federation in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation;
  • persons in respect of whom a decision has been made to prohibit exit from the Russian Federation in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of the Russian Federation.

In accordance with Article 7 of Federal Law No. 114-ФЗ dated August 15, 1996 

«On the Procedure for Exit from the Russian Federation and Entry Into the Russian Federation» (hereinafter referred to as the Federal Law), the main documents certifying the identity of a citizen of the Russian Federation under which citizens of the Russian Federation exit from and enter the Russian Federation, shall include:

  • passport;
  • diplomatic passport;
  • service passport.

Internal passport», a passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation certifying the identity of a citizen of the Russian Federation on the territory of the Russian Federation, can be used by a citizen of the Russian Federation to exit the country for the Republic of Abkhazia, the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Ukraine and the Republic of South Ossetia in accordance with the agreements of the Russian Federation with foreign states.

According to Clause 7 of the Internal Russian Passport Regulations approved by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 828 dated July 8, 1997, the passport is valid for 90 days from the day when its holder reaches the age of 20 and 45 years.

At the same time, the border authorities of these states may not recognize the validity of the internal Russian passport after the date when its holder reaches the age of 20 and 45 years.

International passport», a passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation certifying the identity of a citizen of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation, can be used to exit the Russian Federation before its expiration date (until the date indicated in the passport).

Minor citizens of the Russian Federation, information on which is included under the established procedure in the parents’ passports issued in accordance with Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 298 dated March 14, 1997 (an international passport that does not contain an electronic storage medium) can exit and enter the Russian Federation without the need to obtain a separate passport.

The right of a citizen of the Russian Federation to exit the Russian Federation may be temporarily limited in cases provided for in Article 15 of the Federal Law.

Procedure for Entry into and Exit from the Russian Federation for Minor Citizens

In accordance with Article 20 of the Federal Law, minor citizens of the Russian Federation may exit the Russian Federation together with one of their legal representatives, unless the other legal representative files a statement of disagreement with such exit.

If minor citizens of the Russian Federation exit the Russian Federation unaccompanied by their legal representatives, they shall have a notarized consent to exit the Russian Federation in addition to their passport.

A notarized consent for the exit of minor citizens from the Russian Federation can be issued by one of their legal representatives; it may indicate the period of exit and the state (s) that their intend to visit.

In accordance with Article 21 of the Federal Law, a legal representative is entitled to express disagreement with the exit of a minor Russian citizen from the Russian Federation. 

However, this prohibition does not apply to the exit of a minor Russian citizen from the Russian Federation accompanied by a legal representative of the minor who is a citizen of the Russian Federation and has expressed such disagreement.

A statement of disagreement with the exit of a minor Russian citizen from the Russian Federation submitted by the legal representative of the minor may be withdrawn by the said legal representative out of court.

The procedure for submitting, withdrawing, accepting and recording statements of disagreement with the exit of a minor Russian citizen from the Russian Federation was approved by Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia No. 651 dated August 31, 2021.

In case of a dispute arising in connection with the disagreement of the minor’s legal representative for a minor Russian citizen to exit the Russian Federation, the issue of the possibility of minor’s exit from the Russian Federation shall be resolved in court.

Minor citizens of foreign states who independently enter and exit the Russian Federation may not obtain the consent of their legal representatives for submission at border control.

Procedure for Entry into and Exit from the Russian Federation for Citizens of the Russian Federation who Also Have Another Citizenship

In accordance with the provisions of Article 6 of Federal Law No. 62-ФЗ dated May 3, 2002 «On Citizenship of the Russian Federation», a citizen of the Russian Federation who also has another citizenship is considered by the Russian Federation only as a citizen of the Russian Federation, with the exception of cases provided for by an international treaty of the Russian Federation or federal law.

Thus, exit from and entry into the Russian Federation of citizens of the Russian Federation who also have another citizenship is possible only with a document identifying them as citizens of the Russian Federation.

Entry into the Russian Federation

To enter the Russian Federation, foreign citizens and stateless persons shall present valid identification documents recognized by the Russian Federation and a visa, unless otherwise provided by international treaties of the Russian Federation and federal legislation (Article 6 of the Federal Law).

At the same time, the category of the issued visa shall correspond to the purpose of the foreign citizens’ entry into the Russian Federation and the purpose of their stay in the Russian Federation.

If foreign citizens or stateless persons provide knowingly false information about themselves or the purpose of their stay in the Russian Federation, entry into the Russian Federation may not be permitted in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 26 of the Federal Law. 

Entry into the Russian Federation by a foreign citizen or stateless person may not be allowed or permitted on the basis of decisions of authorized bodies in cases provided for in Article 26 and Part One of Article 27 of the Federal Law. 

Exit from the Russian Federation

Based on Article 6 of the Federal Law, citizens of foreign states with which a visa regime for travel has been established, are required to present a valid visa (with an unexpired validity period) when leaving the Russian Federation.

When leaving the Russian Federation on a visa that has expired, border officials shall send materials about violation by a foreign citizen of the rules of stay in the Russian Federation to the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. Based on the results of consideration of these materials, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia may make a decision to refuse a foreign citizen to enter the Russian Federation (in accordance with Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 12 dated January 14, 2015).

Exit from the Russian Federation for foreign citizens or stateless persons may be limited in cases provided for in Article 28 of the Federal Law.

Rules of Regime at Checkpoints for Passing across the State Border of the Russian Federation approved by Order of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation No. 107 dated March 31, 2022.

These Rules of Regime at Checkpoints for Passing across the State Border of the Russian Federation are binding on all citizens of the Russian Federation, foreign citizens and stateless persons located on the territory of checkpoints for passing across the State Border of the Russian Federation.

At checkpoints, the following shall be prohibited:

  • perform economic and other activities not permitted by the legislation of the Russian Federation;
  • enter (pass) and/or otherwise penetrate the territory of the checkpoint, as well as exit (leave), import (export) cargo, goods, animals into the territory (ies) of the checkpoint in violation of these Rules;
  • be on the territory of the checkpoint without the documents established by these Rules, with expired, invalid documents or documents whose validity period has not begun, during off-duty (non-working) hours;
  • prevent other persons and vehicles from crossing the State Border of the Russian Federation in any way, unless this is caused by the need to prevent the offense being committed;
  • interfere with the work and in any way impede the performance of official duties by officials of state control body units;
  • carry out public calls for non-compliance with the legal requirements of officials of state control body units related to the performance of their official duties, as well as other calls aimed at non-compliance with the regime of the State Border of the Russian Federation, the regime at the checkpoint;
  • perform actions that could entail a threat to the life, health and property of persons crossing the State Border of the Russian Federation, officials of state control body units, the administration of a checkpoint, the administration of a transport infrastructure facility, legal entities and/or individual entrepreneurs carrying out activities legally at the checkpoint, with the exception of the actions of customs and border control officials, employees of internal affairs bodies, authorized persons from among the forces ensuring transport security of a transport infrastructure facility, acting in the manner established by the legislation of the Russian Federation to prevent offenses on the part of individuals (groups of persons);
  • visit vehicles traveling abroad for which border control has not been completed, as well as vehicles traveling abroad for which additional regime restrictions have been introduced, without the permission of officials of border control units;
  • start moving and/or change parking places for vehicles traveling abroad, board (disembark) passengers, load (unload) luggage, cargo without permission from officials of border control units at the checkpoint;
  • be in the office premises of border control units, cross the line of passport control booths without the permission of officials of border control units;
  • be on the premises of customs authorities, on the territory and in premises where customs control is carried out, cross the boundaries of customs control zones, be within their boundaries without the permission of customs officials (with the exception of officials of border control units when performing their official duties at the checkpoint). Control over admission to the premises of customs authorities, places of customs control, boundaries of customs control zones is carried out by customs authorities;
  • transfer and receive various items (belongings, documents) through the barriers (turnstiles) of the checkpoint;
  • carry out audio recording, as well as video and photography using any technical means of engineering structures, other objects located on the territory of the checkpoint, the actions of officials of state control body units in the performance of their official duties at places of duty, without permission from the relevant state control body units;
  • use cellular and radio communications for persons directly crossing the State Border of the Russian Federation during the period of control operations;
  • drink alcoholic beverages, with the exception of public catering places;
  • be in border and customs control places for persons who arrived at the checkpoint without the purpose of crossing the State Border of the Russian Federation;
  • be on the territory of the checkpoint for persons traveling on foot, vehicles (with persons in them) after informing them of the grounds for refusal to pass through the State Border of the Russian Federation;
  • walk animals on the territory of the checkpoint;
  • smoke on the territory of the checkpoint outside specially equipped and designated areas;
  • use unmanned aerial vehicles over the territory of checkpoints without permission from the heads of border control units;
  • provide assistance in the transportation (penetration) of persons and vehicles into the territory of the checkpoint in violation of these Rules;
  • stay after the departure of the foreign vehicle specified in the travel documents, as well as stay for more than 24 hours from the moment of arrival for persons transiting through the territory of the Russian Federation on a foreign aircraft with a transfer at the airport, except for cases of forced stop;
  • carry out other illegal actions in violation of these Rules.

For violation of these Rules, Article 18.4 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation No. 195-ФЗ dated December 30, 2001 provides for administrative liability in the form of a warning or an administrative fine.

Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation No. 195-ФЗ dated December 30, 2001

Article 18.1. Violation of the State Border Regime of the Russian Federation
  1. Violation of the rules for crossing the State Border of the Russian Federation by persons and/or vehicles or violation of the order of passage of such persons and/or vehicles from the State Border of the Russian Federation to checkpoints across the State Border of the Russian Federation and in the opposite direction, except for the cases provided for in this Article 18.5 of this Code, entails the imposition of an administrative fine on citizens in the amount of two thousand to five thousand rubles; for officials: thirty thousand to fifty thousand rubles; for legal entities: four hundred thousand to eight hundred thousand rubles.
  2. The same actions committed by a foreign citizen or a stateless person shall entail the imposition of an administrative fine in the amount of two thousand to five thousand rubles with or without administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation.
  3. Conducting economic, industrial or other activities on the State Border of the Russian Federation or near it without notifying border authorities or with notification to such authorities, but in violation of the established procedure for conducting economic, industrial or other activities on the State Border of the Russian Federation or near it, entails a warning or imposition an administrative fine on citizens in the amount of up to one thousand rubles with or without confiscation of the instruments or the subject of the administrative offense; for officials: three thousand to five thousand rubles with or without confiscation of the instruments or the subject of the administrative offense; for legal entities: ten thousand to thirty thousand rubles with or without confiscation of the instruments or the subject of the administrative offense.

Note. For administrative offenses provided for by this Article and other articles of this Chapter, unincorporated businesses in connection with the implementation of their business activities bear administrative responsibility as legal entities, except in cases where special rules are established in the relevant articles of this Chapter on the administrative liability of unincorporated businesses, which differ from the rules on the administrative liability of legal entities.

Article 18.4. Violation of the Regime at Checkpoints across the State Border of the Russian Federation
  1. Violation of the regime at checkpoints across the State Border of the Russian Federation entails a warning or the imposition of an administrative fine on citizens in the amount of three hundred to one thousand rubles; for officials: two thousand to five thousand rubles; for legal entities: five thousand to ten thousand rubles.
  2. The same actions committed by a foreign citizen or a stateless person shall entail a warning or the imposition of an administrative fine in the amount of three hundred to one thousand rubles with or without administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation.
Article 18.7. Failure to Follow a Lawful Order or Demand of Servicemen in Connection with the Performance of Their Duties to Protect the State Border of the Russian Federation

Failure to follow a lawful order or demand of servicemen in connection with the performance of their duties to protect the State Border of the Russian Federation entails the imposition of an administrative fine in the amount of one thousand to one thousand five hundred rubles or administrative arrest for a term of up to fifteen days.

Article 15. The right of citizens of the Russian Federation to exit the Russian Federation may be temporarily limited in cases where they:

  1. upon access to information of special importance or top secret information classified as state secret in accordance with the law of the Russian Federation on state secrets, have entered into an employment agreement (contract) providing for a temporary restriction of the right to exit the Russian Federation if the period of restriction cannot exceed five years from the date of the last acquaintance of a person with information of special importance or top secret information, until the expiration of the period of restriction established by the employment agreement (contract) or in accordance with this Federal Law. If there is a conclusion of the Interdepartmental Commission on the Protection of State Secrets that information of special importance or top secret information that the citizen has been aware of on the day of filing the application to exit the Russian Federation retains the appropriate degree of secrecy, then the period of restriction of the right to exit the Russian Federation specified in the employment agreement (contract) may be extended by the Interdepartmental Commission formed in the manner established for the creation of interdepartmental coordination and advisory bodies formed by federal executive authorities. In this case, the period of restriction of the right to exit shall not exceed a total of ten years, including the period of restriction established by the employment agreement (contract), from the date of the last acquaintance of the person with information of special importance or top secret information;
  2. in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, have been called up for military service or sent to alternative civilian service, until the end of military service or alternative civil service;
  3. in accordance with the criminal procedural legislation of the Russian Federation, are suspects or brought as an accused, until a decision is made in the case or a court verdict enters into legal force;
  4. have been convicted of committing a crime, until the completion (execution) of the sentence or until release from punishment;
  5. avoid obligations imposed on them by the court, until the obligations are fulfilled or until the parties reach agreement;
  6. have provided knowingly false information about themselves when preparing documents for leaving the Russian Federation, until the issue is resolved within a period of no more than one month by the body preparing such documents;
  7. perform public service (works) in the federal security service, until the end of the relevant contract (employment agreement);
  8. have been dismissed from military service in the federal security service, for a period of up to five years from the date of dismissal from military service. The procedure for making decisions on restricting the right to exit the Russian Federation on the grounds provided for in this subclause is established by the federal executive security body;
  9. have been declared insolvent (bankrupt), until the arbitration court issues a ruling on the completion or termination of insolvency (bankruptcy) proceedings, including as a result of the arbitration court’s approval of a settlement agreement.

Article 15.1.

Citizens subject to conscription for military service and who have received a summons from the military conscription office are prohibited from leaving the Russian Federation from the day on which such a summons is considered served in accordance with federal law. This restriction is valid until the obligation to appear on summons at the military conscription office is fulfilled.

Article 26. Entry into the Russian Federation by a foreign citizen or stateless person may not be permitted if the foreign citizen or stateless person:

  1. at the checkpoint across the State Border of the Russian Federation, they violated the rules for crossing the State Border of the Russian Federation, customs rules, sanitary standards — until the violation is eliminated;
  2. the Russian Federation, customs rules, sanitary standards — until the violation is eliminated;
  3. provided knowingly false information about themselves or the purpose of their stay in the Russian Federation;
  4. no longer valid;
  5. repeatedly (two or more times) within three years were brought to administrative responsibility in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation for committing an administrative offense on the territory of the Russian Federation — within three years from the date of entry into force of the last resolution on bringing to administrative responsibility;
  6. no longer valid;
  7. no longer valid;
  8. no longer valid;
  9. during their previous stay in the Russian Federation did not leave the Russian Federation before the expiration of thirty days from the date of expiration of the period of temporary stay, with the exception of cases of inability to leave the territory of the Russian Federation due to circumstances related to the need for emergency treatment, serious illness or the death of a close relative, residing in the Russian Federation, or due to force majeure (extraordinary and unpreventable circumstances under given conditions) or other natural phenomena — within three years from the date of departure from the Russian Federation;
    participates in the activities of a foreign or international non-governmental organization in respect of which a decision has been made to recognize its activities as undesirable on the territory of the Russian Federation;
  10. participates in the activities of an organization included in the list of organizations and individuals in relation to which there is information about their involvement in extremist activities or terrorism, or compiled within the framework of the exercise of powers provided for by Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the UN Security Council or bodies specially created by decisions UN Security Council, lists of organizations and individuals associated with terrorist organizations and terrorists or with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, as well as in the event that an interdepartmental coordinating body carrying out functions to combat the financing of terrorism makes a decision to freeze (block) funds or other property this foreign citizen or stateless person or in the presence of a court decision that has entered into legal force to suspend transactions on bank accounts and other transactions with funds or other property of this foreign citizen or stateless person — until the corresponding decision is cancelled.

Article 27. A foreign citizen or stateless person is not permitted to enter the Russian Federation if:

  1. This is necessary to ensure the defense capability or security of the state, or public order, or the protection of public health, with the exception of cases provided for in paragraph two Clause 3 Article 11 of Federal Law No. 38-ФЗ dated March 30, 1995 “On Preventing the Spread of Disease Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Russian Federation”;
  2. In relation to a foreign citizen or stateless person, a decision has been made on administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation, on deportation or transfer by the Russian Federation to a foreign state under the international treaty of the Russian Federation on readmission, within five years from the date of administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation, deportation or transfer by the Russian Federation to a foreign state under the international treaty of the Russian Federation on readmission;
    1. in relation to a foreign citizen or stateless person, a decision has been made repeatedly (two or more times) on administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation, on deportation or transfer by the Russian Federation to a foreign state under the international treaty of the Russian Federation on readmission, within ten years from the date of administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation, deportation or transfer by the Russian Federation to a foreign state under the international treaty of the Russian Federation on readmission;
    2. during the previous stay in the Russian Federation, the readmission procedure for a foreign citizen or stateless person has been terminated in accordance with Article 32.5 of the Federal Law “On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation”, within three years from the date of exit from the Russian Federation.

  3. a foreign citizen or stateless person has an unexpunged or outstanding conviction for committing an intentional crime on the territory of the Russian Federation or abroad recognized as such in accordance with federal law;
  4. a foreign citizen or stateless person have not submitted the documents required to obtain a visa in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, until their submission;
  5. a foreign citizen or stateless person have not submitted a medical insurance policy valid on the territory of the Russian Federation, until its submission, with the exception (on the basis of reciprocity) of officials of diplomatic missions and consular offices of foreign states, employees of international organizations, family members of these persons and other categories of foreign citizens;
  6. when applying for a visa or at a checkpoint across the State Border of the Russian Federation, a foreign citizen or stateless person have been unable to confirm the availability of funds for residence on the territory of the Russian Federation and subsequent exit from the Russian Federation or provide guarantees for the provision of such funds in accordance with the procedure established by the authorized federal executive authority;
  7. in relation to a foreign citizen or stateless person, a decision has been made on the undesirability of staying (residing) in the Russian Federation;
  8. invalid;
  9. a foreign citizen or stateless person have used false documents;
  10. a foreign citizen or stateless person, during their previous stay in the Russian Federation, have evaded paying a tax or an administrative fine or have not reimbursed the costs associated with administrative expulsion from the Russian Federation or deportation, until the corresponding payments will be made in full. The procedure for repayment by foreign citizens and stateless persons of such debt is determined by the Government of the Russian Federation;
  11. a foreign citizen or stateless person has been repeatedly (two or more times) within one year brought to administrative responsibility for committing an administrative offense related to an infringement upon public order and public safety or violation of the regime of stay (residence) of foreign citizens or stateless persons in the Russian Federation or the procedure for exercise of their occupation on the territory of the Russian Federation, within five years from the date of entry into force of the last resolution on bringing to administrative responsibility;
  12. a foreign citizen or stateless person during their previous stay in the Russian Federation have exceeded the period of stay of ninety days in total during each period of one hundred and eighty days, within three years from the date of exit from the Russian Federation;
  13. a foreign citizen or a stateless person during their previous stay in the Russian Federation have not left the Russian Federation and stayed in the Russian Federation continuously for more than one hundred and eighty days, but not more than two hundred and seventy days from the date of expiration of the period of temporary stay in the Russian Federation provided for by federal law, within five years from the date of exit from the Russian Federation;
  14. a foreign citizen or a stateless person have not left the Russian Federation during their previous stay in the Russian Federation and stayed in the Russian Federation continuously for more than two hundred and seventy days from the date of expiration of the period of temporary stay in the Russian Federation provided for by federal law, for ten years from the date of exit from the Russian Federation;
  15. a foreign citizen or stateless person is included in the list of persons who are prohibited from entering the Russian Federation in accordance with Clause 1 Article 1 of Federal Law No. 272-ФЗ dated December 28, 2012 “On Enforcement Actions Regarding Persons Involved in Violations of Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms and the Rights and Freedoms of the Russian Federation Citizens”.

Article 28. Exit from the Russian Federation for foreign citizens or stateless persons may be restricted in cases where they:

  1. in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, have been detained on suspicion of committing a crime or brought as accused, until a decision is made on the case or until a court verdict enters into legal force;
  2. have been convicted of committing a crime on the territory of the Russian Federation, until the completion (execution) of the sentence or until release from punishment, with the exception of foreign citizens or stateless persons paroled from serving a sentence, if they do not have financial liabilities to the injured party in accordance with the court decision;
  3. avoid obligations imposed on them by the court, until the obligations are fulfilled or until the parties reach agreement;
  4. have not fulfilled the obligations to pay taxes provided for by the legislation of the Russian Federation, until these obligations are fulfilled;
  5. have been brought to administrative responsibility in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation for committing an administrative offense on the territory of the Russian Federation, until the execution of the punishment or until release from punishment.